【见闻专访】MIT Sloan商学院招生办主任:如何叩开麻省理工MBA的大门?

又到了每年的MBA申请季。事实上,包括哈佛、斯坦福、麻省理工等全球顶尖商学院的第一轮申请已经结束,申请者们正为第二轮截止日期努力准备各项材料。

MBA申请者心中“梦想学校”之一的麻省理工学院斯隆商学院(MIT Sloan)究竟偏爱什么样的申请人?MIT Sloan招生办主任Dawna Levenson近日在Sloan办公室接受了华尔街见闻副总编辑严婷的独家专访。

Dawna Levenson强调,MIT Sloan最看重申请者拥有的五种特质:领导力、建立关系的能力、独立思考、不懈追求目标、以及创新能力。Sloan认为,过去的表现是未来成功的最佳指标。通常他们会从两个维度上评估申请:一个是所谓的“已证明的成功”(Demonstrated Success),另一个是“个人属性”(Personal Attribution)。

Levenson表示:“来自中国的学生表现都非常棒。我们乐见更多来自中国的申请者。”

此外,她还提到,金融危机后,MBA学生在金融行业寻求职业发展的兴趣已明显下降,不少来自金融行业的学生来念MBA但很多人是为了转行。

dawna (MIT Sloan招生办主任Dawna Levenson)

严婷: 今年第一轮申请截止日期刚过(9月23日),你们一定收到了大量的申请,你能和我们分享一下去年MIT SloanMBA的申请和录取情况和数据吗?

Dawna Levenson: 
是的,我们的确收到了很多申请。我们最新一届MBA共有406名学生,其中50名来自全球运营领袖(LGO)项目,其余356名为两年制MBA学生。另外,女性占比近40%(39.4%)。60%为美国学生,40%为国际学生。国际学生来自世界上60个不同的国家,所以学生背景是相当多元的。学生们的工作经历在0到12年之间,平均工作经历约5年。我们的学生来自各行各业,有同学来自咨询行业,也有来自金融服务行业和银行,但我们也有同学来自艺术类行业,我们也招收了建立自己企业的创业者。大家的背景各异。

严婷:每一个学校都有它自己给外界的固有印象,而这些印象并不总是正确的。一些人说“MIT Sloan是主要针对想要创业的工程师”。你怎么看待这种印象?你希望申请者在听到MIT Sloan这个名字的时候会怎么想?

Dawna Levenson: 
MIT Sloan当然是MIT的一部分,就学生而言,在这儿成功的人有着各种各样的背景。是的,有理工科背景的人会更多地关注到MIT,所以他们更倾向于申请我们的项目。但是我们并没有刻意要寻找理工科背景的人,一点也没有。

严婷:你在Sloan也负责其他多个项目的招生,与其他商学院相比,Sloan有什么特别之处吗?

Dawna Levenson: 我们现在坐在这个咖啡厅(Sloan商学院咖啡厅),看到了自很多不同项目的人。事实上你可以在Sloan获得本科学位。我们也有一年的金融硕士项目,一年的管理科学项目,两年的MBA——这是我们Sloan最大、也许也是最知名的项目。我们还有一个非全日制的EMBA(高级管理人员行政管理)项目。此外,还有Sloan Fellow项目和博士(Phd)项目。很多不同的项目会带来巨大好处,那就是这会吸引到有着各种各样经历的人,所以教室内的讨论和社交互动是相当丰富和多元的。

严婷: 关于申请,您先能简要总结一下申请的程序吗?

Dawna Levenson:
我们的申请程序非常简单明了。我们在标准化申请流程上花了很大功夫,所以其他项目的申请流程也基本一样。就MBA而言,要求要提交两篇短文(essays)。我们也要求提交简历,而且我们为申请者提供了简历模板。我们要求提交两封职业推荐信,而且要求所有获得学位的成绩单。而且如果你做过交换生,我们同样也想要这些(交换期间)成绩。另外还需要GMAT或者GRE,但不再有任何托福的要求。之后我们将审阅所有的申请。

严婷:即使对非英语母语学生也不需要托福成绩吗?

Dawna Levenson:
不需要,因为在你提交申请后的下一个步骤,就是被邀请参加面试。这个面试是面对面的,而且只有收到面试邀请才行,这是必需的下一步。我们更认同通过面试来帮助我们评估申请者的英语熟练程度。

严婷: 过去你们曾要求申请者提交一封Cover Letter,后来为什么不要求了? 

Dawna Levenson:
对,已经不再需要了。我们一直都在努力改变,有时只是因为我们想要尝试新的方法。你知道,我们发现有时人们在Cover Letter中的内容与他们的短文有点重复,显得很累赘。所以我们决定将其剔除。

严婷:今年MBA申请流程的最大变化是什么?

Dawna Levenson: 我认为最大的改变时我们的第二篇短文。去年申请了的同学,应该会记得去年我们第二篇短文的题目是“告诉我们你曾走出自己舒适区的一次经历。”但今年我们的第二篇短文是要求申请者自己给自己写一封推荐信,就像把自己当做自己现在的推荐人。我们在推荐信中提出的问题与我们给推荐人提的问题是一样的。这很有趣,我们团队对这一改变很兴奋。

严婷: 这一改变背后的理由是什么?

Dawna Levenson:    
有几个因素。一个单纯的因素是我们想要做出这个改变来反映现在行业动态。现在与以往相比,职场中越来越要求人们进行自我评测。另外,我们想要看到的数据,即我们设计的这些问题,其实就是我们推荐信上要求的信息。我们以此来判断申请者是否拥有我们在寻找的一些品质。所以我们就想,为什么不让申请者给自己写一封推荐信呢?我认为对每一个人来说,这是一个非常发人深思的问题。

严婷:这也帮助你们去评估申请者的能力。我知道你们在筛选申请者时采用了一个评分系统。你们仍然使用这个系统吗?

Dawna Levenson: 是的,我们的整个录取程序都是基于一个行为模型,通过这个模型来寻找我们想要的某些能力。很多年以前,我们与咨询师一起确认了这四到五种特质,这些特质在很多成功的学生和校友身上都得到了集中体现。我们设计的短文、推荐信以及面试问题就是要获取能反映这些能力的数据。例如领导力,我们希望(在申请者身上)寻找体现领导能力的证据,我们也在寻找建立关系能力的证据,这里只是几个例子。

严婷:其他几项特质是什么呢?

Dawna Levenson:
除了领导力和建立关系的能力,我们还想寻找独立思考能力这一特质,例如不拘一格的思维能力。还有一点就是不懈追求目标,也就是有能力确立目标、并坚持不懈达到这个目标,即使在追求的路上遇到各种各样障碍。最后是创新能力。你知道,在MIT Sloan我们一直在寻找这些追寻创新想法的人。这些就是我们要评估的最重要的品质。

严婷:有趣的是,你们并不询问申请者的职业目标和未来规划,为什么?

Dawna Levenson:
我们发现,两年制MBA的同学,到我们这里来,在认识了很多人,发现和了解了各行各业的其他机会,从而改变自己想法的人占绝大多数。所以在这里并不是你的职业兴趣决定了你的成功,而是我们之前提到的那些品质。那些才是看一个人能否成功的真正的关键指标。

严婷:那么你们怎么评估申请者的潜力呢?

Dawna Levenson:
我们相信,过去的表现是未来成功的最佳指标。我们的工作也基于此。我们正是在寻找你过去的经历中可以证明建立关系能力的证据。这是一个很好地例子,因为这对我们来说很重要。辅导、团队建设、教导、培训,如果这些事情是你在过去三年中一直擅长做的,那么这些特质并不会随着时间的推移而消失,最有可能的是你会继续朝着这个方向前进。

严婷:在申请材料包中,你们接收到了很多东西:各项数据、推荐信、课外活动、个人短文,这些每一小部分信息是如何拼凑在一起从而起作用的呢?

Dawna Levenson:
没有哪一个部分是一定比另一部分更重要的,我们会参考申请的每一个部分,我们会从中读取特定的数据。我们事实上从两个维度上评估我们收到的申请。一个是我们所谓的“已证明的成功”(Demonstrated Success),另一个是“个人属性”(Personal Attribution)。已证明的成功包括你工作上的成就、你的GMAT或GRE成绩和你的GPA。很多这样的信息都是个人披露的,一些来自于你的简历,一些是来自你的推荐信。另一方面,我们在寻找我们称作“个人属性”的东西,这些特质正是我们之前提到的:领导力、关系建立能力等等。

严婷:什么是申请者需要避免的常见错误?

Dawna Levenson:
一个普遍的错误或挑战是,申请者在文书中往往纠结究竟该用“我们”还是“我”来表达。一方面,我们非常想要知道申请者作为个人而言做了什么。另一方面,我们也想知道申请者是否与团队有良好的合作。所以在短文中找到使用“我们”和“我”之间的良好平衡是非常重要的一件事。另外,我们鼓励人们遵守我们的申请要求。例如我们有字数限制,所以你需要确保在字数要求之内。另外我们只要求两篇推荐信,我们也确信每个人如果想要的话一定能够得到五封推荐信。你知道的,我们不建议申请者不遵守申请指导要求。我们理解每一个人都想与众不同,但有一些与众不同的方式是对的,有一些却是不好的。

严婷: 你们做的每一个决定都可能改变一个人的一生,你们是否有时需要做出艰难的决定?

Dawna Levenson:
我们意识到我们所做的工作,正如你所说的是改变命运的,我事实上很喜欢这一点,我也经常提醒我们办公室里的每一个人,尤其是阅读申请材料的人,关于这一点。因为它确实可能改变一个人的命运。我很荣幸我的工作让我能够打电话给人们告诉他们被MIT Sloan录取了。但有时这种对话也很艰难,比如要告诉他们这并不是最适合他们的地方,我们现在并不能录取他们。这些都是工作的一部分,而我也比其他人更享受它们,当然我也认识到它的两面性。

严婷:一些人被拒了,但他们可以再次申请获得第二次机会。

Dawna Levenson: 
是的,非常对,我们确实鼓励人们再次申请。再次申请的人在我们项目里都表现非常好。这是一个竞争异常激烈的地方,这里很可能暂时没有一些人的位子,但一些人可能会在过去几年里改进他们履历从而提高资质。再次申请无疑是展示一个人的坚持不懈,它展示了一个人对目标的追求,即使在第一次没有成功后仍然不放弃。所以我们确实录取了一些再次申请的人们,他们在我们的项目中的表现都非常出色。

严婷:你们把申请者放入候补名单的常见原因是什么?他们需要做什么从而可以被录取?

Dawna Levenson:
我们鼓励在等待名单中的人在开放窗口期中(Open Window Period)告知我们的发生的任何新的情况。这并不意味着他们需要每天给我们写电子邮件,但当比如他们得到了晋升或是换了工作等重大事情的发生的时候,请给我们发邮件,让我们知晓,我们将会把信息加入你的档案。

严婷:你对中国的申请者和学生有什么普遍的印象?

Dawna Levenson:
我们每年都收到来自中国的申请数量都不错,规模非常可观。我们刚过第一轮的截止日期,这一次同样也收到了很多申请。我们将要建立的这个班级是非常多元化的国际化班级。来自中国的学生表现都非常棒。我们乐见更多来自中国的申请者。

严婷: 你们是如何面试中国学生的?

Dawna Levenson:
当要面试时,我们到世界各地区。所以我们也去中国,到北京或上海,取决于面试的数量,这两个地方都去。就我个人而言,我认为作为面试官第一的职责就是让申请者感觉放松,因为这主要是想要了解另一个人。我为各种项目面试了很多中国申请者,他们都表现得非常棒。

严婷:你对中国申请者有什么具体的建议吗?

Dawna Levenson: 不,我的建议对每一个人来说都是一样的,做你自己,在你的申请上花一些时间,面试是MIT Sloan对你的第一印象。尽量通过各种可能的方式来接触我们,通过我们在你的国家举办的活动了解我们,或者你有机会直接来到学校参观。

严婷:从行业角度来看,MBA教育在金融危机前后有什么变化吗?

Dawna Levenson:
我们观察到,许多人对于寻求金融行业职业发展的兴趣已明显下降。我们有来自金融行业的学生,但很多人都是为了转行。

严婷:谈到转行,你在埃森哲咨询公司工作了18年但决定改变你的职业,走向一个全新的领域。为什么你当初会做这样的决定?你对其他想转行的人有何建议?

Dawna Levenson:
是的,这个问题很有趣。我理解为什么很多人认为这是一个很大的职业改变。但对我而言,我认为根据我自己的优势,做我认为很有趣的工作,并不是一个很大的转变。我当初知道,在某一时间我会离开埃森哲去干一些别的事情,事实上长期以来我都知道我想要在一个学术环境中工作,我一直想回到大学校园。所以我在离开埃森哲开始在MIT工作的时候,我的目标是很明确的。我觉得我有一些非常容易转变领域的技能。我在埃森哲学到了很多,关于项目管理和商业发展,个人发展,人际管理等。在我现在每天的工作中我仍然继续依赖于这些技能。所以也不是那么不同。我想提到的另一方面是我发现我自己喜欢处在有非常强的文化氛围,在埃森哲如此,在MIT Sloan也是如此,都有非常强的文化,我很想成为其中的一部分。

严婷:你对MIT Sloan以及其他计划改变职业领域的人有什么建议吗?

Dawna Levenson:
说起来比做起来更容易。我现在已完成职业转变后,说起来就比较容易。我想说,要遵从你的本能。找到你擅长做的事、感兴趣的事以及需要你这样的能力的地方,这三者的结合点。集中精力在这一点上,并努力争取,你将会找到你的下一个职业。这也正是我现在的情况。坦率的讲,五年前我很难想象今天的我的样子,如今也很幸运能成为今天的我。我也支持其他人在他们的生活中做出类似的职业选择。

(实习编辑 戴博 对本文亦有贡献)

(注:转载请注明华尔街见闻和作者严婷)

英文版原文如下:

Interview with Dawna Levenson, director of the MBA & MFin admissions office at MIT Sloan School of Management

(By Ting Yan, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of Wallstreetcn)

Ting Yan: We have just passed the round 1 application deadline (on Sep 23). You must have received tons of applications. Could you share some data on last year’s application and acceptance?

Dawna Levenson: 

Yeah, we did. So our current class is 406 students that made up of 50 Leaders for Global Operations (LGO) students, 356 2-year MBA students, a little under 40% female (39.4%), 60% US and 40% international. It is from 60 different countries around the world, so it is an incredibly diverse class. The years of working experience range goes from 0 to about 12 or so, and the average working experience is a little bit under 5. We have people coming from all different industries. So we get people from consulting, we get people from financial services and banking, but we also get people from the arts, we get people who are entrepreneurs starting their own companies. It really varies significantly.

Ting Yan: Every school has its stereotypes, and we know that these are not always accurate. Some say “MIT is for engineers who want to start-up businesses”. What do you think of this mindset? What do you want applicants to think of when they hear the name MIT Sloan? 

Dawna Levenson:  
MIT Sloan is definitely a part of MIT, in terms of the students, the people who are successful here, they really come from all different back grounds. Yes people who have science and engineering are more aware of MIT and therefore they tend to apply to our program. But we are not specifically seeking out just people with science engineering backgrounds, not at all.

Ting Yan: You are in charge of different programs in Sloan, are there any unique aspects of Sloan compared to other schools?  

Dawna Levenson:
We are sitting in this cafeteria with people from many different programs. You actually can get an undergraduate degree here at Sloan. We also have our one year Master of Finance program, one year Master of Science in Management Studies, two-year MBA that are largest and probably best-known program at Sloan. We have an executive MBA which is a part-time MBA program. We also have a Sloan fellows program and we also have a PhD program. So this is a variety of programs. What’s great about that is it attracts people with very different experience levels, so the classroom conversation and the networking in the community is really very rich and diverse.

Ting Yan: Regarding the application, could you briefly summerize the process first?

Dawna Levenson: Our application process is extremely straight forward. I will focus on MBA, but we tried very hard to standardize the process of different programs, so it is not that different for other programs. For the MBA, there are two required essays. We also ask for resume and we provide a resume template for you. We ask for two letters of professional recommendation. We ask for transcripts from all universities where you received a degree. And if you by chance did any kind of exchange, we want those grades too. And GMAT or GRE, and no TOEFL requirement at all, we then review all of our applications.

Ting Yan: Even for non-English speaking students?

Dawna Levenson: 
No, because the next step in the process, after you submit your application, is to be invited for an interview. The interviews are face to face, they are by invitation only, that are required next step. And we really feel strongly we rely on the interview to help us assess one’s English proficiency.

Ting Yan: I remember you used to ask for a cover letter,  why was the change?

Dawna Levenson: No more, we are constantly looking to change things. Some of them are simply because we want to experiment different things. You know, we found that it was a little bit redundancy in what people put in their cover letter and then put in their essay. So we decide to strip that out.

Ting Yan: What are the major changes in MBA application process this year?

Dawna Levenson: So I would say the biggest change is our second essay. To those of you who applied a year ago, you would remember that our second essay was “tell us about a time when you went beyond your comfort zone.” Our second essay this year is actually to ask our candidates to write a letter of recommendation on behalf of themselves, as if they were their current supervisor and we provide them the exactly same set of questions that we send to our recommenders. It is fun. We are excited.

Ting Yan: What’s the rationale behind this change?

Dawna Levenson: So there are several factors, one was simply we wanted to change it up to mirror what industry does. So in industry, people are asked to do self-assessment now more than in the past. Also the data, the way we structure our questions, and the data we are asking, the recommenders form is very much the data we are looking for in terms of people’s different competencies. So we thought why not ask somebody to write their own recommendation. I think it is very thought-provoking for the individuals.

Ting Yan: It also helps you to assess the competencies. I know you use a score system during selection. Do you still use it?

Dawna Levenson: So we do, our entire admission process is based on a behaviourial model where we are looking for certain competencies. Many years ago we worked with consultants to identify those four or five qualities that were prevalent in many successful both students as well as alumni. And we structure our essay questions as well as our recommender’s questions as well as our interviews to be able to garner data that support these competencies, for example leadership. So we are looking for evidence of leadership skills, and we look for evidence of relationship building just to give you a couple of examples.

Ting Yan: What are the other qualities?

Dawna Levenson: Besides leadership and relationship building, we want to see independence of thought, i.e. the ability of thinking outside of a box. And the persuit of goals, i.e. the ability to set and define goals, and actually go after them even if obstacles get in your way. And finally there is innovation. You know, we are MIT Sloan, and we’re always looking for people who are pursuing innovative ideas and thoughts, that’s something else that we evaluating.

Ting Yan: Interestingly, you don’t really ask for applicants’ career goals or future plans, why?

Dawna Levenson: We have found that a very large percentage of our two-year MBA students, once they come here, meet other people, see other opportunities get a feel for other industries, they change their minds. So it is not your career interests that make you successful here, but these other qualities we’ve talked about. They are the real key indicators for us, of success.

Ting Yan: Then how do you evaluate the candidates' potentials?

Dawna Levenson: There is a school of mind that says past performance is the best indicator of future success. That’s where we are lying on. We are looking for, in your past, evidence of relationship building. To me it is a great example, because it is so important to us. Mentoring, teambuilding, teaching, coaching, and these qualities don’t go away if it is something you were inheritably good at doing in the past three years, most likely you will continue to do it moving forward.

Ting Yan: In the application packages you actually receive a lot of things, the data, recommenders, extracurricular activities, essays. How do all the little pieces fit together for you?

Dawna Levenson: No part is more important than the other, we really look at all of the components of the application, we are pulling out certain data. We are actually evaluating all of our applicants on two dimensions. One is what we called demonstrated success, and the other is personal attributes. Demonstrated success includes your work success, your GMAT or GRE and your GPA. A lot of that information are self-reported, some of them come from your resume, some of them also come from your recommendation. On the other hand, we are looking at what we call personal attributes, these are the qualities that I talked about before, leadership, relationship building, etc. that come into play.

Ting Yan: What are the common mistakes that applicants should avoid?

Dawna Levenson: A common mistake or challenge that people are faced with are something we called “we vs. I” factor. We very much want to know what you as an individual did, on the other hand, we also want to know that you work well in teams. So striking the right balance in your essay using the word “we” versus the word “I”, is a very important thing to do. We encourage people to simply following the directions. We provide word limits, so you want to stay within the limits. We ask for two recommendations, we are sure that everybody is capable of getting five recommendations if you really want to. So you know, not following the guidelines is not something we recommend. We understand that everybody wants to stand out, but there are ways to stand out that are good, and there are ways that are not so good. 

Ting Yan: Every decision you make may change one’s life. Is there a time when you have to make a very difficult choice?

Dawna Levenson: We definitely realize that the work that we do as you mentioned is life changing, I actually really like that, I remind people in my office, and I remind people who read our applications about this all the time, because it really is life changing. It is a great privilege of my job to be able to call people and tell them if they get admitted to MIT Sloan, and at times it is challenging to have some different conversations with somebody to let them know that perhaps this is not the best place for them, we don’t have a spot for them. It is all part of the job, and they are certainly parts that I enjoy more than others, but I recognize that there are both sides to it.

Ting Yan: Some people get rejected but they may have a second chance and reapply.

Dawna Levenson: 
Yeah, absolutely, we encourage people to reapply, we do. Re-applicants do very well in our program. It is an incredibly competitive pool, and there may not be a space for an individual. But somebody may have improved their candidacy in their profile over the past year. Reapplying certainly shows persistence, it shows your interest it shows your pursuit of goal, your ability to find goals and pursue them even if they don’t work out for the first time. So we do admit people who are reapplicants, and they do very well in our program. 

Ting Yan: What are your common reasons to waitlist an applicant? What can they do to get off the wait list and get admitted?

Dawna Levenson: so people on the waitlist are encouraged to keep us informed of any changes that may happened during the open window period. It does not mean that they have to email us every day, but to the extent that if they get promotion, change of job, something significant happened. Please send us an email and let us know, we will add it to your file.

Ting Yan: What is your general impression of Chinese applicants and students? 

Dawna Levenson: We receive a healthy number of applicants from China every year, it is a large number, definitely significant. We just had our round one deadline, again we received a healthy number of applications from China. I think that the class we are trying to create here is in incredibly diverse global class. I think students in China are doing very well here, so that’s great, we would love to see even more people from China to apply.

Ting Yan: How do you conduct interviews for Chinese students?

Dawna Levenson: When it comes to the interview, we travel globally. So we come to China, we come to Beijing, Shanghai, depending on the number of interviews, we go to both of these cities. From me personally, the very first responsibility as the interviewer I have is trying to make the applicant feel relaxed, because again it is all about getting to one another. I have been interviewed many many applicants in China, with multiple programs here, they do very well.

Ting Yan: Do you have any specific advice for Chinese applicants?

Dawna Levenson: No, I think it is the same for everybody, be yourself, spend some time on your application. It is actually your first impression to MIT Sloan school. Reach out to us however you can, get to know people whether through the event we are holding in your country or if you have an opportunity to come here. 

Ting Yan: A more industry-level questions is, how has the MBA education changed before and after this financial crisis?

Dawna Levenson: We definitely have seen less interest of people in pursuing a career in finance. We have seen that. We have people coming from finance coming here, but many of them are career changers.

Ting Yan:  Talking of career change, you spent 18 years working for Accenture but decided to shift your career to a completely new and different path. Why did you make that decision? What are you advice to many career changers?

Dawna Levenson: Yes, it is interesting because I understand why somebody from outside would think it is a huge career change. For me personally, based on the strengths that I think I have, the type of work that I find interesting, it wasn’t such a big change. I knew that, at some point I would leave Accenture to do something else, and actually I had known for a very long time that I would want to work in an academic environment. I have always longed being in a university campus. So I was very focused at that time, when I decide to leave Accenture and work at MIT. I felt I brought a lot of very transferable skills with me. So I feel my work at Accenture I learned a lot about program and project management, about business development, personal development, and relationship management. These are all different skills that I continue to rely upon every day to do my job here. So not that different. The other thing I would like to say is that I found out about myself that I love to be in an environment with a very strong culture. And clearly both Accenture and MIT Sloan have very strong cultures that I also want to be in part of.

Ting Yan: Do you have any advice for those career changers at MIT Sloan and beyond?

Dawna Levenson: It is easier said than done. It’s easier to say now because I am on the other side. Follow your instincts. Figure out the intersection of what you are good at doing, what you are interested in doing and where there is a need. And at that point, really be focused and go for it, and you know you will find your next career. That’s exactly what I have ended up in. To be honest, five years ago it would be hard for me to imagine that I would be where I am today. And very fortunate that I am where I am. I encourage others to do similar things with their lives.

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